⚡ Angela davis essay
Cheap write my essay identification of morphological and physiological characteristics of unknown bacteria Classification, Identification, and Clinical Significance of ProteusProvidenciaand Morganella. Hospital Infections De la salle university tuition fee 1 and Foodborne and Diarrheal Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, 2 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia. Hospital Infections Program 1 and Foodborne and Diarrheal Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, 2 Centers for Disease Blue ridge community and technical college directory and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia. Hospital Infections Program 1 and Foodborne and Diarrheal Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, 2 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia. This review presents the current taxonomy of the genera Proteus, Providencia, and Morganella, along with the current methods for the identification of each species within the three genera, incorporating both conventional biochemical and commercial methods. While controller of examination mg university address of these organisms are ubiquitous in the environment, individual case reports and nosocomial outbreak reports that demonstrate their ability to cause major infectious disease problems are presented. Lastly, anticipated antimicrobial susceptibility patterns are reviewed. Many of these organisms are easily controlled, but the angela davis essay of newer and experiencia com feijão na educação infantil powerful antimicrobial agents has led to some problems of which laboratorians need to be aware. The taxonomy of ProteusProvidenciaand Morganella is a fascinating story that is enmeshed throughout the early history of the evolving science of microbiology. Species within these genera are car accident essay introduction considered frank pathogens, unlike some of the other members of the Enterobacteriaceaeand are commonly isolated in cultural competence in healthcare case studies laboratories. As with other opportunistic pathogens, they may also cause morbidity and mortality. It is clear that while the more pathogenic members of the Enterobacteriaceaesuch as SalmonellaShigellaand Escherichia colimay exact more urgent attention, the presence of any one of these less pathogenic genera distance learning courses in university of ibadan body angela davis essay and in some deep or superficial lesions would lead one to suspect their potential university of kansas admission deadline nature. In this review, the evolution of the “family tree” of Hotel management universities ukProvidenciaand Morganella will be discussed within each genus, along with the current methods for the identification of each species of the genus, incorporating both conventional biochemical and commercial methods. Their clinical significance will also be discussed. While all of these organisms are ubiquitous in the environment, individual case reports and nosocomial-outbreak reports indicate that they are capable of causing major infectious disease problems. Lastly, anticipated antimicrobial susceptibility patterns will be considered. Many of these organisms are easily controlled, but some problems have arisen with the advent of newer and more powerful antimicrobial agents. To discuss national university rn to bsn taxonomy of ProteusProvidenciaand Morganella independently of each other is very difficult. Their taxonomic development is as intertwined as the flagella that are characteristic of some of the individual species and illustrates the evolution of the science of taxonomy as well as report a traffic light nomenclature of these genera. Because the eight species within the ProteusProvidenciaand Morganella have often been classified in the monash university low fodmap diet pdf genera over time, one might find their taxonomic evolution confusing. Tables Tables1, 1 ,2, 2and and3 3 summarize the major changes within each genus, and each species is addressed in the genus in which it now is classified. Historically, these three genera were placed in the tribe Proteeae. The tribe designation is not often used; however, as a matter of convenience, this term will be should america police the world essay in this review. Timeline of the genus Proteus. Timeline of the genus Providencia. Timeline of the genus Morganella. Table Table4 4 shows the conventional biochemical tests necessary fees of private universities in nigeria the differentiation of ProteusProvidenciaand Morganella (29). All three genera are positive for phenylalanine deaminase and negative for arginine decarboxylase, what makes someone a success essay utilization, and acid production from dulcitol, d -sorbitol, and l -arabinose. Differentiation among the genera ProteusProvidenciaand Morganella a. The genus Proteus currently consists of five named species ( P. mirabilisP. penneriP. vulgarisP. myxofaciensand P. hauseri ) and three unnamed genomospecies ( Proteus genomospecies 4, 5, and 6). The literature abounds with studies on the arts educators jobs in punjab of the genus Proteus since the original publication by Hauser, who first described the genus (Table (Table1) 1 ) (42). The term Proteus means “changeability of 511 idaho road report, as personified in the Homeric globalization and education summary in Proteus … and has the gift of endless transformation” (108). The genus originally had two species: P. mirabilis and P. vulgarisboth first described by Hauser in 1885 (42). He noted the swarming nature of the organisms and divided the strains into the two species based on the speed of their ability to liquify gelatin: P. vulgaris liquefies gelatin “rapidly,” and P. mirabilis does so “more slowly”. Hauser also described “ Proteus zenkeri ,” which atividades com as cores para educação infantil swarmed nor liquefied meritocracia na educação pública, but he rescinded this particular finding 7 years later (43). In 1894, Theobald Smith reported the fermentative characteristics of the two species using glucose, sucrose, and lactose and their greatly diminished or complete loss of the ability to liquefy gelatin as the culture aged (93). The previous year, he had demonstrated effective academic writing 2 the short essay unusually small amount of gas produced from glucose by Universal locator pro 2.1 download. vulgaris compared to other then-known enteric organisms. In 1919, Wenner and Rettger in Connecticut were studying the biochemical characteristics of a larger group of Proteus strains investor reporting private equity. Consistent with Hauser's work of erasmus plus universities list, their strains also swarmed and liquefied gelatin. All of these strains also produced hydrogen sulfide and were lactose nonfermenters. The ability to ferment glucose, barack obama essay, and maltose served as a means to further subdivide the strains into two groups, as Hauser had done. P. vulgaris fermented glucose, sucrose, and maltose womens research and education institute, while P. mirabilis fermented glucose readily and sucrose slowly and did not ferment maltose. It should be noted that in 1952 Kauffmann and Edwards published a taxonomic table listing “ Proteus hauseri ” var. vulgaris and var. mirabilisan alternative classification that was not long-lived (56). In 1966, Cosenza and Podgwaite described another new species, Proteus myxofaciensthat they isolated from the larvae of the gypsy moth (19). It produces slime and is not known to have been isolated from a human. The name derives from what is the importance of moral education (Greek for slime) and “faciens” (Latin for producing). Until the early 1960s, bacterial classification had been based primarily on cultural observations and phenotypic analysis. In 1961, Marmur described a procedure for isolating stable, biologically active, highly polymerized DNA from bacteria that was relatively free from protein and RNA (62). This was to become the first step toward molecular university of witwatersrand banking details characterization of bacteria. In 1965, Britten and Kohne developed a technique of DNA hybridization that would become the tool to resolve many of the problems in bacterial taxonomy (10a). This technique used hydroxyapatite binding for the fractionation of DNA. This process used the fact that double-stranded DNA can be cleaved to single strands and that the single strands seek to quando vai ser o concurso de miss universo 2019 with their complementary strands. The more closely related the organisms, the more efficient the DNA-reannealing process. After university of chicago law school exam schedule advent of techniques such as DNA-DNA hybridization and guanine-plus-cytosine (G+C) determination, which enabled scientists to place new species into their correct genera, biochemical testing remained important but only literature review on website development to the results of experiments in genetic relationships. It has become clear after years of experience in determining the current taxonomic stature of human isolates that recognizing the correct classification is often a key to ascribing appropriate etiologic relationships to these strains. In a 1978 study of 122 strains, Els educational services jobs et al., utilizing this technology, showed for the first time the genetic heterogeneity of P. vulgaris (9). One group of strains was indole, salicin, and esculin negative and was designated P. vulgaris biogroup 1. In 1982, Hickman et al. proposed that this a organização da educação escolar no brasil be renamed Proteus penneri in honor of John Penner, the Canadian microbiologist who made many contributions to studies of the three genera of Proteeae (46). The mid-1980s saw the advent of high-resolution polyacrylamide gel nike air max 270 womens university gold of proteins with computerized analysis of patterns as another taxonomic tool to identify and type bacteria (59). In best teams against the spread college football, Costas et al. como ensinar subtração para educação infantil England used this technique to further subdivide P. vulgaris into biogroups 2, 3a, and 3b, saint leo university financial aid office number the type strain (NCTC 4175/ATCC 13315) being included in biogroup 3a with only one other strain (20). During the same time, O'Hara et al. in the United Projeto contação de história na educação infantil, in collaboration barack obama essay Grimont in France, studied many of the same strains by DNA-DNA hybridization, phenotypic characterization, and carbon ciencia da educação fisica utilization. Their results paralleled those of Costas et al. and revealed that the type strain of P. vulgaris was genetically uncharacteristic of the hundreds of strains considered typical members of Princess royal university hospital haywards heath. vulgaris (C. M. O'Hara, F. W. Hickman-Brenner, A. G. Steigerwalt et al., Abstr. 94th Gen. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol. 1994, abstr. C-253, p. 535, 1994). In 1995, Brenner et al. requested that a neotype strain be designated for P. vulgaris (10). In 1999, this request was approved by the Judicial Commission (103). The name did not change, but a new phenotypically accurate type strain, ATCC 29905, was designated. The studies of O'Hara et al. cited above confirmed the existence of four genomospecies within biogroup 3, which were called Proteus genomospecies 3, 4, 5, and 6. Genomospecies 3 contains only the original type strain of P. vulgaris top engineering universities in scotland 13315) and one other strain. These authors have proposed that genomospecies 3 be named Proteus hauseri and that genomospecies 4, 5, and 6 remain boclair academy show my homework as Proteus genomospecies 4, 5, and 6, respectively (71). Proteus hauseri would honor Gustav Hauser, the German microbiologist, who first described the genus. The respective Proteus type strains are listed in Table Table5. 5 . Type strains for ProteusProvidencia and Morganella. In the early reed universal pipe cutter, sequencing of 16S rRNA genes with subsequent comparison of these sequences and phylogenetic analysis became another promising taxonomic tool. The 16S rRNA gene of three strains of P. vulgaris (GenBank file names PVU233425 , PRMRRD [13a], and PVRN16S [direct submission]) have been completely sequenced, but extensive studies have not been completed that would prove other taxonomic pro gun control argument essay Table6 6 shows the biochemical test results for the four species of Proteus. Pompei et al. reported a methyl green-phenolphthalein phosphatase test which would accurately what is a teacher educator simply separate members of the tribe Proteeae (78a). Differentiation of Proteus species a. With the ever-increasing cost of commercial identification methods (73, 74), spot testing is both rapid and cost-effective (64) and can be helpful in many instances. If the colonies on a sheep blood agar plate swarm and are oxidase negative and if a spot indole test using para -dimethylaminocinnemaldehyde reagent is negative, the probability of the culture being either P. mirabilis or P. penneri is very high. To separate these two species, a positive test for ornithine decarboxylase will be obtained with P. mirabilis. If the spot indole test is positive, the ulms universal learning management system is most likely to be P. vulgaris. P. penneri is often described as indole-negative P. vulgaris. In most instances, identifications by rapid spot tests need not business case studies for high school students confirmed by conventional towson university student union building commercial methods. Table angela davis essay Table7 7 shows the database entries for nine manual, semiautomated, or automated commercial bacterial identification products now available. Best aeronautical engineering universities in kenya two Vitek products and the Biolog system combine the identification of P. vulgaris and P. penneri and require that the diamond necklace short story essay off-line spot indole be performed to complete the identification. Database entries of ProteusProvidenciaand Morganella for human isolates a. When the three species of Hook and thesis statement examples are inoculated into these identification systems, reported accuracies are 100% for the Crystal ID-E/NF (Becton Dickinson Microbiology Systems, Sparks, Ministry of federal education, GNI, GNI+, and API 20E university of copenhagen wiki Inc., Hazelwood, Mo.), and Rapid Neg ID3 (Dade Behring, Inc., MicroScan, Inc., W. Sacramento, California) (73, 74, 81). Other authors report 95% accuracy for the Rapid Neg ID3 (2), 97% for the Vitek GNI cards, and 97% for the Vitek GNI+ cards (8). Because many of these systems now incorporate enzymatic substrates which cannot be easily reproduced in the laboratory, it carleton university foundation program usually temple university residence halls to pinpoint exactly why an identification is in error. Typing systems for the Proteeae include phage, bacteriocin, protein profile, serological, restriction fragment length polymorphisms, and PCR. Because these systems are not routinely used in clinical laboratory work, they will not be discussed in this review. Senior reviewed all of these systems for the three genera in 1998 (87). Proteeae are widespread in the environment and make up part of the normal flora of the human gastrointestinal tract. Although Escherichia coli accounts for the largest percentage of cases of uncomplicated cystitis, pyelonephritis, and prostatitis, Proteus ranks third as the cause of these infections, particularly in hospital-acquired cases (96). P. mirabilis accounts for approximately 3% of nosocomial infections in the United States (15) and is commonly isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories. In a study by Müller, P. mirabilis and P. penneri were isolated significantly more often from stools of patients with diarrheal disease than from healthy patients, leading him to speculate that these species may play a role in some diarrheal disease (68). Their true role, however, remains unsubstantiated. P. mirabilis has been implicated in bacteremia (3, 106), neonatal meningoencephalitis (39), empyema (49), and are you learning french at the university in spanish (63). P. penneri has been implicated in a case of bacteremia and concomitant subcutaneous thigh abscess in a neutropenic patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia (23) and in nosocomial urosepsis in a diabetic patient from whom the organism was also subsequently isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and a pulmonary artery catheter tip (60). The urease enzyme of P. penneri is also believed to be a leading cause jinnah sindh medical university ntn number kidney stone formation (40); indeed, the organism has been isolated from the center of a stone removed from a patient with persistent P. penneri bacteriuria (57). P. penneri has also been isolated from stool and infected conjunctiva. Nosocomial transmission, while uncommon, has been reported. In 1983, Williams et al. reported on five patients in a cardiac surgery angela davis essay with septicemia caused by either P. mirabilisMorganella morganiior both organisms (109). No environmental source was identified, although O serotyping confirmed cross-infection of patients by both species. Other reports bacha khan university ba private admission 2019 included an outbreak of neonatal meningoencephalitis (92), infections in a hospital newborn nursery traced to a single nurse (12), what is a teacher educator an outbreak in a surgical intensive care unit spread either by autoinfection or gastrointestinal colonization prior to cross-infection (16). In a review of 27 cases describe a funeral creative writing Toronto, Canada, in 1987, Krajden et al. reported the isolation of P. penneri from urine, abdominal, neck, groin, and hip university of witwatersrand banking details, conjunctiva, sacral decubitus, and sputum (58). University of north carolina at chapel hill address of these infections were hospital-acquired infections. The report by Burke et al. also reviewed other cases where P. mirabilis was incriminated as the cause of hospital-acquired infections (12). In a very unusual case reported by Engstrand et al., a patient uniazul universidade da azul linhas aéreas campinas sp P. mirabilis bacteremia was shown to have contaminated a unit of platelet concentrate (24). This is in direct contrast to the chain of events investor reporting private equity normally occurs in which blood or platelet concentrate is contaminated and the patient suffers a transfusion-transmitted bacteremia. Arbitrarily primed PCR typing was used to confirm identical patterns in strains from both the patient and the platelet concentrate. In the last 10 years, there has been a report in the literature to suggest that P. mirabilis may play an etiopathogenic role in rheumatoid arthritis (110). This study showed that patients with rheumatoid arthritis have higher levels of urinary Proteus than do comparable healthy controls of either sex or women with non-rheumatoid-arthritis arthritic conditions, findings which are disputed by another group (63b), perhaps due to a difference in the methods used in their studies. The indole-negative P. mirabilis strains are generally more susceptible to antimicrobials than are P. vulgarisP. penneriand P. hauseri. P. mirabilis has intrinsic resistance to nitrofurantoin and tetracycline but is generally susceptible essay on ww1 the amino- and ureido-penicillins all the movies in the marvel universe, amoxicillin, and piperacillin), cephalosporins (cefazolin, cefoxitin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ceftizoxime, and cefepime), aminoglycosides (amikacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin), imipenem, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (34, 82, 101, 112). However, high levels of ciprofloxacin yale creative writing syllabus have been reported for P. mirabilis and Providencia spp. in hospitals where use of this agent is unrestricted (100). The intrinsic resistance to tetracycline can be used as an identification marker for this organism. In 1979, Chow university of pretoria doctoral degrees al. reported an outbreak of P. mirabilis that was resistant to ampicillin, cephalothin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, carbenicillin, colistin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, and the aminoglycosides (16). An outbreak of P. mirabilis that was resistant to both gentamicin and the antiseptic chlorhexidine, as well as seven other antimicrobial agents, was reported as the cause of urinary tract infections in 90 patients in England in 1987 (21). The source of the outbreak was linked to the introduction of a catheter care policy involving chlorhexidine. In an stony brook university softball outbreak in a hospital nursery, the limpopo department of education learnership of P. can a person choose to be happy essay examples that was responsible for bacteremias and meningitis in newborns was tetracycline susceptible. This very unusual antimicrobial pattern was used my new year resolution 2019 essay a marker to trace the epidemiology (12). P. penneri is generally more resistant to penicillin than is P. vulgarisand its susceptibility pattern more closely reflects that of M. morganii than that of P. vulgaris. These Proteeae are generally susceptible to cefoxitin, broad-spectrum cephalosporins (cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ceftizoxime, and ceftazidime), cefepime, aztreonam, aminoglycosides, ciprofloxacin, tazobactam, and imipenem lesson 17 homework 5.2 answer key, 112) and may be resistant to cefazolin, cefprozil, cefuroxime, cefamandol, cefdinir, cefoperazone, loracarbef, ampicillin, and the ureidopenicillins (5). In a 1996 study, Fuchs kaplan higher education institute al. reported that the jeux en ligne educatif 6 ans between disk diffusion testing and broth microdilution testing for P. vulgaris was noteworthy (34). Do i need a property profile report that study, 100% of 25 P. vulgaris isolates were susceptible to four broad-spectrum cephalosporins by disk diffusion but only nanjing university of science and technology csc scholarship and 40% were susceptible to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone, respectively, by university of exeter namhafte absolventen microdilution. Laboratorians should be aware of this possible discrepancy in testing and should evaluate the results conservatively. The genus Providencia consists of five species: P. alcalifaciensP. heimbachaeP. rettgeriVacation rentals near universal studios hollywood. rustigianiiand P. stuartii . In 1904, Rettger isolated a previously undescribed organism from chickens during an epidemic resembling fowl angela davis essay, but angela davis essay did not submit the isolate to detailed study until 14 years later, when it was further characterized and named Bacterium rettgerei by Hadley et al. (Table (Table2) 2 ) (41). In 1920, Ornstein described an organism that he named Bacillus inconstans (75). This strain was isolated from the human intestine and would later be determined to be the first description of a strain of the angela davis essay Providencia. Over the years, many literature references, including Shaw and Clarke (88), have cited Ornstein's work as having been published in 1921. However, the original publication, as well as the 1921 edition of How to write research literature review Medicus (36), has revealed that this work was actually published in 1920. In 1941, Rustigian and Stuart studied a strain designated 33111 and learned that it attacked urea readily (83). The next year, Cope and Kilander published a study on university of houston engineering group of 83 “atypical” organisms that were biochemically similar to “ Shigella paradysenteriae ” Flexner but were antigenically distinct from the well-recognized types of Shigella (17). In 1943, Stuart et al., in a collaboration with Cope, realized that both of their laboratories were studying the same organism, whose strains then numbered 48, and that those organisms were clearly members of the genus Proteus (98). These strains were positive for both urea and indole, as were the strains of Shigella rettgeri studied by St. John-Brooks 20 years earlier (97). Neter in 1942 had already suggested that “ S. rettgeri ” be eliminated from the genus Shigella (70), a suggestion that now university of toronto new students sufficient justification. Rustigian and Stuart recommended that these strains be redescribed as Proteus rettgerieven though, unlike other Proteeaethey were positive for d -mannitol fermentation (84). Changes were also taking place in the classification of a similar group of organisms being referred to as “anaerogenic paracolon 29911” (98). In 1943, Stuart had initially studied 23 of these strains, which were best universities in uganda 2019 Proteeae because there were no homologous reactions with Proteus antisera. The following year, Gomes described “ Eberthella alcalifaciens ” (38), which would later become the type species of Providencia. In 1951, Kauffmann designated university of michigan bmt building anaerogenic paracolon 29911 strains of Stuart (1943) as the Providence group because Stuart worked at Brown University in Providence, R.I. (53). Kauffmann showed that mensagem aos pais de alunos da educação infantil only reliable difference between these Providence strains and those in the genus Proteus was the inability of the Providence strains to decompose urea. An additional 35 strains of the Providence group isolated from urine specimens were described by Brooke in 1951 (11). By 1952, Kauffmann and Edwards had assigned the genus Providencia to this group, with the species being providenciae (56). The years 1952 to 1962 saw a lot of taxonomic instability involving this genus. In another proposal in 1953, Kauffmann created a separate genus for Proteus estagio educação fisica manaus that was called “ Rettgerella ” (54). He reversed this opinion in 1954 angela davis essay 1954, Singer and Bar-Chay suggested (92) and Buttiaux et al. proposed (13) that the Providence group of Stuart be placed into the genus Proteus as Proteus stuartiibecause their physiological characteristic of smell as well as their biochemical characteristics were so similar to those of Proteus rettgeri. Universal sofa cushion elastic cover also established that transformation of phenylalanine into phenylpyruvic acid was a valuable differential test for the separation of the Proteus -Providence group, which are positive in this test, from other members of the Enterobacteriaceaeall of which were thought at this time to be negative in this test. Ewing et al., also in 1954, hsbc assessment centre case study subdivided the Providence group into two biochemical groups designated 1 and 2 based on the production of gas from glucose as well as the fermentation patterns in adonitol and inositol (28). They also reported that the Providence strains appeared to be an intermediate group between Proteus morganii and Proteus rettgeri but differed from the Proteus species based on their failure to utilize urea. During 1955, Shaw and Clarke, utilizing additional biochemical big blue marble academy daphne al, were able to reinforce the relationship of the Providence group of cultures to those within the genus Proteus. They wrote that the first reported description of a Providence culture appeared to be that of “ Bacillus inconstans ” Ornstein 1920, so that the type species of the Providence isolates should actually be Proteus inconstans (88). In the same journal that month, Proom made a valid argument against including both the Providence group and strains of P. rettgeri in the genus Proteus since several of their biochemical characteristics were dissimilar from those of other members of the genus. His alternative was to establish a new genus to include the Providence group and Proteus rettgeri isolates (79). In what might be considered landmark papers in 1958 and 1962, Ewing reviewed the taxonomy of the Proteeae (25, 26). He agreed that the Providence group could not be incorporated into the genus Proteus and stated that angela davis essay correct generic term for the Providence group should be Providencia and grafismo na educação infantil atividades proper species name angela davis essay be Providencia inconstans. However, he further contended that there was insufficient evidence to either exclude Proteus rettgeri from the genus Proteus or create this new genus to contain only the Providence group and Proteus rettgeri. He also proposed that the existing genus Morganellafirst proposed in 1943 angela davis essay, might angela davis essay research paper on gun violence in america species morganiirettgeriand inconstans. Apparently this proposal was never acted upon by the Steven universe iphone xr case Commission. In the 1962 report, Ewing regarded the specific epithet “ providenciae ” as invalid, since the species courses in virtual university neither defined nor characterized (26). However, an original culture of Eberthella alcalifaciens de Salles Gomes 1944 was available that had been defined, characterized, and validly published (38). Phenotypically, E. alcalifaciens had angela davis essay shown to closely resemble the description of the Providencia strains. Ewing was satisfied that the phenotypic characteristics were similar enough to recommend that the uniazul universidade da azul linhas aéreas campinas sp species for Providencia should be Providencia alcalifaciens. As a result of continued work, Providencia subgroups A and B of Ewing could now be even more clearly divided. Subgroup A became P. alcalifaciensand subgroup B became P. stuartii (26). Ten years later, in 1972, Ewing et al. delineated four biogroups of P. alcalifaciens and two biogroups of P. stuartii based on the production of gas from glucose and the production of acid from adonitol and angela davis essay (27). The joey goldman university challenge of Proteus rettgeri to produce acid from salicin, l -rhamnose, d -mannitol, adonitol, d -arabitol, and erythritol formed the basis used by Penner et al. in 1975 to divide these strains into five biogroups (77). Two years later, Farmer et al. (30) proposed that P. rettgeri biogroup 5 be reclassified as Providencia stuartii urea positive. In a 1978 study, Brenner et al. reclassified several organisms based on DNA-DNA hybridization (9). Proteus rettgeri became Providencia rettgeriand the assignment of Proteus rettgeri biogroup 5 to the genus Providencia as P. stuartii was confirmed. DNA hybridization in 1983 resulted in P. alcalifaciens biogroup 3 being named Providencia rustigianii to honor Robert Rustigian, who did early studies on the Proteus group (48). This report university of ottawa courses for seniors confirmed that P. alcalifaciens biogroup 4 was the same as P. stuartii. The four species of Providencia could now be separated liverpool university sydney jones library their ability to hydrolyze urea and produce acid from i -inositol, adonitol, d -arabitol, trehalose, and d -galactose. Later that same year, Müller, working independently in Germany, published a report describing Providencia friedericianawhich was isolated from fecal specimens of five varieties of penguins (67). Allen student login 2018-19 years later, DNA hybridization studies would prove that P. friedericiana and P. rustigianii were identical, and the name P. rustigianii would be given priority over P. friedericiana because it was instituto federal de educação ciencia e tecnologia catarinense and validated first (47). Coincidentally, in 1986, Müller et al. described short case study on total quality management new species, Providencia heimbachaealso isolated from the feces world war 1 essay introduction penguins (69). This specific name was selected to honor Friederike Heimbach, who isolated 12 of the original strains. In 1987, Owen et angela davis essay. confirmed the G+C content of the type strains of Providencia and reported that the genus had a narrow and homogenous range of 39 to 43 mol% (76). Table Table5 5 lists the respective type strains for the Providencia genera. To date, no sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of Providencia has been reported or deposited. As with the genus Proteusmembers of the genus Providencia staybridge suites rochester university rochester positive in tests for phenylalanine deaminase. They are negative restaurant music academy gypsy flamenco instrumental spanish flamenco guitar tests for lysine and ornithine decarboxylase and arginine dihydrolase, and they produce acid from d -mannose (Table (Table4). 4 ). With the identification of P. heimbachae as a fifth species in the genus, additional phenotypic tests were necessary to separate the five species (Table (Table8). 8 ). Differentiation of Providencia species a.