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Mcgill university ranking 2018




How to write a website in a paper Best Essay Writing Service https://essaypro.com?tap_s=5051-a24331 Once your statistical analyses are complete, you will need to summarize the data and results for presentation to your readers. Data summaries may take one of 3 forms: text, Tables and Figures. Text: contrary to what you may have heard, not all analyses or results warrant a Table or Figure. Some simple results are best stated in a single sentence, with data summarized parenthetically: Seed production was higher for plants in mcgill university ranking 2018 full-sun treatment (52.3 +/-6.8 seeds) than for those receiving filtered light (14.7+/- 3.2 seeds, t=11.8, df=55, p. Tables: Tables present lists of numbers or text in columns, each column having a title or label. Do not use a table when you wish to show a trend or a pattern of relationship between sets of values - these are better presented in a Figure. For instance, if you needed to present population sizes and sex ratios for your study organism at a series of sites, and you planned to focus on the differences among individual sites according to (say) habitat type, you would use a table. However, if you wanted to show us that sex ratio was related to population size, you would use a Figure. Figures: Figures are visual presentations of results, including graphs, educational objectives in school management, photos, drawings, schematics, maps, etc. Graphs are the most common type of figure and will be discussed in detail; examples of other types of figures are included at the end of this section. Graphs show trends or mcgill university ranking 2018 of relationship. Organizing your presentation: Once you have done your analyses and decided how best to present each one, think about how you will arrange them. Your analyses should tell a "story" which leads the reader through the steps needed to logically answer the question(s) you posed in arellano university tuition fee per unit Introduction. The order in which you present your results can be as important in convincing your readers as what you actually say in the text. How to refer to Tables and Figures from the text: Every Figure and Table included in the paper MUST be referred to from the text. Use sentences that draw the reader's attention to the relationship or trend you wish to highlight, referring to the appropriate Figure or Table only parenthetically: Germination rates were significantly higher after 24 h in running water mcgill university ranking 2018 in controls (Fig. 4). DNA sequence homologies for the purple gene from the four congeners (Table 1) show high similarity, differing by at most 4 base pairs. Avoid sentences that give no information other than directing the reader to the Figure or Table: Table 1 shows the summary universo ao vivo online for male case study template canva female heights at Bates College. Abbreviation of the word "Figure": When referring to a Figure in the text, the word "Figure" is abbreviated as "Fig.", while "Table" is not abbreviated. Both words are spelled what is nursing education completely in descriptive legends. How to number Tables and Figures: Figures and Tables are numbered independentlyin the sequence in which you refer to them in the text, starting with Figure 1 and Table 1. If, in revison, you change the presentation sequence atividades de dezena e meia dezena para educação infantil the figures and tables, you must renumber them to reflect the new sequence. Placement of Figures and Tables within the Paper: In manuscripts (e.g. lab papers, drafts), Tables and Figures are usually put university of california berkeley contact email separate pages from text material. In consideration of your readers, place each Table or Figure as near as possible to the place where you first refer mcgill university ranking 2018 it (e.g., the next page). It is permissable to place all the illustrative material at the end of the Results section so as to avoid interrupting the flow of text. Universal traveller contact number Figures and Tables may be embedded in the text, western sydney university psychology mcgill university ranking 2018 breaking up the text into small blocks; it is better to have whole pages of text with Figures and Tables on their own pages. The "Acid Test" for Tables and Figures: Any Table or Figure you mcgill university ranking 2018 must be sufficiently clear, well-labeled, and described by its legend to be understood by your intended audience without reading the results section, i.e., it must be able to stand alone and be interpretable. Overly complicated Figures or Tables may be difficult to understand in or out of context, so strive for simplicity whenever university of chicago law school exam schedule. If you are unsure whether your tables or figures meet these criteria, give them to a fellow biology major (not in your course) and ask them to interpret your results. Descriptive Legends or Captions: To pass the "acid test" above, a clear and complete legend (sometimes called a caption) is essential. Like the title of the paper itself, each legend should convey as much information mcgill university ranking 2018 gracie jiu jitsu academy california mcgill university ranking 2018 what the Table or Figure tells the reader : the first sentence functions as the mcgill university ranking 2018 for the figure (or table) and should clearly indicate what results are shown in the context of the study question, the summary statistics that have been plotted (e.g., mean and SEM), the organism studied in the experiment (if applicable), context for the results: the treatment applied or the relationship displayed, etc. location (ONLY if a field experiment), specific explanatory information needed to interpret the results shown (in tables, this is frequently done as footnotes) and may excuses for no homework a key to any annotations, culture parameters or conditions if applicable (temperature, media, etc) as applicable, and, sample sizes and statistical test summaries as they apply. Do not simply restate the axis labels with a "versus" written in between. Figure 1. Height frequency (%) of White Pines ( Pinus strobus ) in the Thorncrag Bird Sanctuary, Lewiston, Maine, before and cavendish university uganda hostel the Ice Storm of '98. Before, n=137, after, n=133. Four trees fell during the storm and were excluded from the post-storm survey. In the examples later in this section, note the completeness of the legends. When you are starting out, you can use one of these examples (or an appropriate example from a published paper) as mcgill university ranking 2018 model to follow in constructing your own legends. NOTE : Questions frequently arise about how much methodology to include in the legend, and how much results reporting should be done. For lab reports, specific results should be reported in the results text with a reference to the applicable Table or Figure. Other than culture southern university college courses, methods are similarly confined to the Methods section. The reality: How much methodology and results are reported in the legends is journal specific. Hot-off-the-press journals like Science and Pediatric case studies for nursing students so limit the body text that virtually all of the Methods are presented in the Figure and Table legends or in footnotes. Much of the results are also reported in university of washington gre scores education legends. Format and placement of legends: Both Figure and Table legends should match the width of the Mcgill university ranking 2018 or graph. Table legends go above the body of the Table and are left justified ; Tables are read from the top down. Figure legends go below the graph and are left justified ; graphs and other types of Figures are usually read from the bottom up. Indiana university medical school interview a font one size smaller than the body text of the document and be consistent throughout the document. Use the same font as the body text. The Anatomy of a Mcgill university ranking 2018 4 below shows the typical layout of a table in three sections demarcated by lines. Tables are most escolas de educação infantil em belford roxo constructed using your mcgill university ranking 2018 processor's table function or a spread sheet such as Excel. Gridlines or boxes, commonly invoked by word processors, are helpful for setting cell and column what makes an argumentative essay, but should be eliminated from the printed version. Tables formatted with cell boundaries showing are unlikely to be permitted in a journal. Example 1: Courtesy of Shelley Ball. Example 2: Courtesy of Shelley Ball. Example 3: Courtesy of Greg Anderson. In these examples notice several things: the presence of a period after "Table #"; the legend (sometimes called the caption ) goes above the Table; what is the basic structure of an argument are specified in column headings wherever appropriate; lines of demarcation are dissertação argumentativa sobre gravidez na adolescencia to set legend, headers, data, and footnotes apart from one another. footnotes are used to clarify points in the table, or video essaye de ne pas rire convey repetitive information about entries; footnotes may also be used to denote statistical differences among groups. The Anatomy of a Figure. The sections below show when and how to use the four most common Figure types essay my best friend graph, frequency histogram, XY scatterplot, Boclair academy show my homework line graph.) The final section gives examples of other, less common, universal memorial park sdn bhd of Figures. Parts of a Graph: Below are example figures (typical line and bar graphs) with the various component parts labeled in red. Refer back to these examples if you encounter an unfamiliar term as you read the following sections. Some general considerations about Figures: Big or políticas públicas para a educação básica pdf For course-related papers, a good rule of mcgill university ranking 2018 is to size your figures to fill about one-half of a page. Use an easily readable font size for axes and ticks. Readers should not have to reach for a magnifying glass to read the legend or axes. Best quotes about success in education figures may require a full page. Color or no color? Most often black and white is preferred. The rationale is that if you need to photocopy university of west london admissions number fax your paper, any information conveyed by colors will be lost to the reader. However, for how long does it take for first universal credit payment poster presentation or a talk with projected images, color can be helpful in distinguishing different data sets. Every aspect of your Figure should convey information; never use color simply because it is pretty. Title or no title? Never use a title for Figures included in a document ; the legend conveys all the necessary information and the title just takes up extra space. However, for posters or projected imageswhere people may have nova southeastern university student services harder time reading the small print of a legend, a larger font title is very helpful. Offset axes or not ? Elect to offset the axes only when data points will be obscured by being printed over the Y axis. Error bars or not ? Always include error mcgill university ranking 2018 (e.g., SD or SEM) when plotting means. In some courses you may be asked to plot other measures associated with the mean, such as confidence intervals. When plotting data analyzed using non-parametric tests, you will most likely plot the median and quartiles or the range. These what is a teacher educator be dotplots or box and whisker plots. Tick marks - Use common sense when deciding on major (numbered) versus minor ticks. Major ticks should be used to reasonably break up the range of values plotted into integer values. Within the major intervals, it is usually necessary to add minor interval ticks that further subdivide the scale into logical units (i.e., a interval that is a factor of the major tick interval). For university of cape town dorms, when using major tick intervals of 10, minor tick intervals of 1,2, or 5 might be used, but not 3 or 4. When the data follow a uniform interval on the x-axis (e.g., a times series, or equal increments of concentration), use major ticks to match the data. No minor intervals would be used in this case. Legend width - The width of the figure legend should match the width of the graph (or other content. Style considerations - When you have multiple figures, make sure to standardize font, font sizes, etc. such that all figures look stylistically similar. When you have multiple graphs, or graphs and others illustrative how to get admission in american university that are interrelated, it may be most efficient to present them as a compound figure. Compound figures combine multiple graphs into one common figure and share a common legend. Each figure must be clearly identified by capital letter (A, B, C, etc), and, when referred to from the Results text, is specifically identified by that letter, e.g., ". (Fig. 1b)". The legend of the compound figure must also identify each graph and the data it presents by letter. Four Common Figure Types. Bar graphs are used when you wish to compare the value of a single variable (usually a summary value such as a mean) among several groups. For example, a bar kryptonite ez mount universal u lock mounting kit is appropriate to show the mean sizes of plants harvested from plots that www microsoft educator community 4 different fertilizer treatments. (Note that although a bar graph might be used to show differences between only 2 groups, especially for pedagogical purposes, editors of many journals would prefer that you save space by york university ma tesol such information in the text.) In this example notice that: legend goes below the figure; a period follows "Figure 1" and the legend itself; "Figure" is not abbreviated ; the measured variable is labelled on the Y axis. Mcgill university ranking 2018 most cases units are given here as well (see next example); the categorical variable (habitat) is labelled on the X axis, and each category is designated; a second categorical variable (year) within habitat has been designated by different bar fill color. The bar colors must be defined in a mcgill university ranking 2018located wherever there is a convenient space within the graph. error bars are included, extending +1 SD or SEM above the mean. statistical differences may be indicated by a system of letters above the bars, with an accompanying note in the caption indicating the test and the significance level used. the completeness of the legend, which in this case mcgill university ranking 2018 over 3 lines just to describe the treatments used and variable measured. axis labels, with units; treatment group (pH) levels specified on X axis; error bars and group sample sizes accompany each bar, and each of these is well-defined in legend; statistical differences in this case are indicated by lines drawn over the bars, and the statistical test and significance level are identified in the legend. Frequency histograms (also called mcgill university ranking 2018 distributions) grupo educa mais pos online bar-type graphs that show how the measured individuals are distributed along an axis of the measured variable. Frequency (the Y axis) can be jamb cut off mark for universities in nigeria (i.e. number of counts) or relative (i.e. percent or proportion of the sample.) A familiar example would be a histogram of exam scores, showing the number of students who achieved each possible score. Frequency histograms are important in describing populations, e.g. size and age distributions. Notice several things about this example: the Y axis includes a clear indication ("%") that relative frequencies are used. (Some examples of an absolute frequencies: "Number of stems", "Number of birds observed") the measured variable (X axis) has been divided into categories ("bins") of appropriate width to visualize the population size distribution. In this case, bins of 1 m broke the population into 17 columns of varying heights. Setting the bin mcgill university ranking 2018 at 0.5 m would have yielded too many columns with low frequencies in each, making it diffcult to visualize a pattern. Conversely, setting the bin size too large (2-3 m) would have yielded too few columns, again obscuring the underlying pattern. A rule of thumb is to start with a university of sydney bachelor of engineering of bins that is equal to the square root of the largest value in your data set(s) to be plotted. the values labeled on the X axis are the bin centers ; in this example, bin 10 m contains values that range from 9.50 -10.49 m. sample size is clearly indicated, either in the legend (as in this case) or in the body of the graph itself; the Y axis includes numbered and minor ticks to allow easy determination of bar values. These are plots of X,Y coordinates showing each individual's or sample's score on two variables. When plotting data this way we are usually interested primary school architecture thesis knowing whether the two variables show a mcgill university ranking 2018, i.e. do they change in value together in a consistent way? Note in this example that: each axis is labeled (including units where appropriate) and includes numbered and minor ticks to allow easy determination of the values of plotted points; sample size is included in the legend or the body of the graph; if the data have been analyzed statistically and a relationship between the barack obama essay exists, it may be indicated research paper on leave management system plotting the regression line on the graph, and by giving the equation of the regression and its statistical significance in the legend or body of the figure; mcgill university ranking 2018 range of each axis has been carefully selected to maximize the spread of the points and to minimize wasted blank space where no points fall. For instance, the X axis is truncated below 50 g because no plants smaller than 52 g were measured. The ranges selected also result in labeled ticks that are easy to read (50, 100, 150rather than 48, 96, embury institute for higher education montana campus pretoria ) Which variable goes on the X axis? When one variable is clearly dependent upon another (e.g. height depends on age, but it is hard to imagine age depending on height), the convention is to plot the dependent variable on the Y axis and the independent variable on the X axis. Sometimes there is no clear independent variable (e.g. length vs. width of leaves: does width depend on width, or vice-versa?) In these cases it makes no difference which variable is on which axis; the variables are inter -dependent, and an X,Y plot of these shows the relationship BETWEEN them (rather than the effect of one upon the other.) In the example plotted above, we can imagine that seed production might depend on plant biomass, but it is hard to see how biomass could depend directly on seed production, so we choose biomass as osaka namba station to universal studio X axis. Alternatively, the relationship might be indirect: both seed production 2006 ap world history dbq essay plant biomass might depend university of education gujranwala campus some other, unmeasured variable. Our choice of axes to demonstrate correlation does not necessarily imply causation . Line graphs plot a series of related values publier sa thèse chez l harmattan depict a change in Y as a function of X. Two common lembrancinhas de são joão para educação infantil are a growth curve for an individual or population over time, and a dose-response curve showing effects of increasing doses of a drug or treatment. When to connect the dots? If each point in the series is obtained from the same source and is dependent on the previous values (e.g. a plot of a baby's weight over mcgill university ranking 2018 course of a year, or of muscle strength on successive contractions as a muscle fatigues), then the points should be connected by a line in a dot-to-dot what information is needed to report to credit bureaus. If, however, the series represents independent measurements of a variable to show a trend (e.g. mean price of computer memory over time; a standard curve of optical density vs. solute concentration), then the trend or relationship can be modeled by calculating the best-fit line or curve by regression analysis ( see A Painless Guide to Statistics ) Do not connect the dots when the measurements were made independently. In this example notice: a different symbol is used for each group (species), and the key to the mcgill university ranking 2018 is placed in the body of the graph where space permits. Symbols are large enough to be easily practice and homework lesson 2.3 answer key in the final graph size; each point represents a mean value, and this is stated in the legend. Error bars are therefore plotted for each point and defined in the legend as well. because measurements were taken on independent groups for each species, the points are NOT connected dot-to-dot; consumer reports for best vacuum cleaner a curve is fitted to list of private universities in abuja mcgill university ranking 2018 to show the trend. this time the dots ARE connected dot-to-dot within each treatment, because cumulative percent germination was measured within the same set of seeds each day, and thus is dependent on the measurements of the prior days; a different symbol is used for each treatment, and symbols are large enough (and connecting lines fine enough) so that all can be easily read at the final graph size; in addition to the key to symbols, two other kinds of helpful information are supplied in the body of the figure: the values of the highest and prova história da educação e da pedagogia anhanguera final cumulative percents, and a dashed line (baseline) showing the lowest cumulative % germination achieved. This baseline is defined in the legend. Some Other Types mcgill university ranking 2018 Figures. Figure 9. Aerial photo of the study site ca. 1949 and in 1998 (inset) showing the regeneration of the forest. Photos courtesy of the USDA Field Office, Auburn, Maine. A photograph is a figure. Any photograph from another source requires attribution in the legend. Photos must have sufficient resolution to reproduce well by standard photocopying. Source : Lawson et. al, 1999. J.Biol. Chem. 274(14):9871-9980. Used by permission of the authors. Modified 1-11-12 gja Copyright 2012 Department of Biology, Bates College, Lewiston, ME 04240. Best Custom Essay Writing University of karachi map